Ten diseases defeated by the vaccine
The effectiveness of vaccination was first discovered by folk medicine in ancient China and India, where children were vaccinated against smallpox. Since then, vaccinations have helped to eliminate many diseases. Here are just a few of them.
The first attempts to inoculate smallpox in England were made in the eighteenth century, when the doctor Edward Jenner made an experimental vaccination against "cowpox" in 1796. The last case of smallpox infection on earth was recorded in 1977.
Defeated in 1870, when French microbiologist Louis Pasteur created the world's first live bacterial vaccine based on the chicken cholera virus.
Tuberculosis ceased to be considered a deadly disease when microbiologist Albert Calmette and veterinarian Camille Guérin developed the first live bacterial vaccine for humans in France in 1908-1921 based on a strain of attenuated live cow tuberculosis bacillus Mycobacterium bovis, which lost its virulence to humans after being specially grown in an artificial environment.
Methods of diphtheria vaccination were first developed in Russia in 1902 by physician S.K. Dzerzhikovsky, who conducted the experience on himself. Since 1923, regular vaccinations have been carried out, after which diphtheria has been out of the category of epidemic diseases.
5. Whooping cough
The pertussis whole-cell vaccine was first developed and licensed in the United States in 1914. It helped to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of pertussis. Pertussis vaccination is carried out in all countries of the world.
The causative agent of tetanus was discovered in 1883 by Russian surgeon N.D. Monastyrsky, and in 1890 Japanese microbiologist Kitazato isolated tetanus serum, which is the only means of preventing tetanus today.
Polio is an acute infectious disease that once posed a serious threat to children. After Jonas Salk, an American, patented the first polio vaccine in 1955, the disease completely disappeared in a number of countries.
8. Meningococcal infection
A disease with a high mortality rate, despite timely and modern treatment. Up to 30 percent of patients die. The only means of prevention is a vaccination created in 1960 by American doctors.
Measles has been considered defeated since 1963, when the United States began to produce a live (weakened virus) vaccine. Since 1970, vaccination against "German measles" (rubella) has also been carried out, after which the incidence in Europe fell to 0 percent.
10. Hepatitis B
In 1981, the first vaccine against hepatitis B was invented, and in 1986, the world's first genetically engineered vaccine against this disease was created.