Ukraine signed a security agreement with Luxembourg: what does it provide for

Prime Minister of Luxembourg Luc Frieden and President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy signed a bilateral security agreement. Source: PROSECUTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE

On July 10, Ukraine and Luxembourg signed a 10-year bilateral security agreement. In the agreement, Luxembourg committed to providing military assistance and support to Ukraine throughout the term of the agreement.

The agreement provides for cooperation in the areas of land, air, and cyber support, strengthening the information technology infrastructure and capabilities of Ukraine's security and defense forces, development of the defense industry, Luxembourg's support for Ukraine's Euro-Atlantic aspirations, and much more. The full text of the bilateral Agreement on Security Cooperation and Long-Term Support between Ukraine and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is available on the website of the President of Ukraine.

The agreement between Ukraine and Luxembourg was signed on July 10 in Washington, D.C., where the NATO summit is currently taking place. President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy signed the document on behalf of Ukraine, and Prime Minister of Luxembourg Luc Frieden signed it on behalf of Luxembourg.

"Luxembourg will continue to provide military assistance to Ukraine and will continue to support the protection of the lives of our people. The agreement focuses on political and value-based cooperation between our countries. Luxembourg supports sanctions against Russia, our further strengthening on the European and Euro-Atlantic directions – Ukraine's accession to the EU and NATO – and will help protect and restore our cultural heritage," Zelenskyy commented on the signing of the agreement.

According to the agreement, which still needs to be approved by the Luxembourg Parliament, the country undertakes to provide military assistance over the next decade with the same dynamics as it does now: in 2024, Luxembourg has allocated 80 million euros for military support to our country.

In particular, the agreement stipulates that Luxembourg will provide land, air, and cyber-electromagnetic support, help strengthen the information technology infrastructure and capabilities of Ukraine's security and defense forces, and provide Ukraine with intelligence and surveillance equipment, including in the space sector.

The agreement enshrines the intention of the signatories to work on identifying areas for deepening mutually beneficial cooperation in the defense industry. In addition, Luxembourg will help Ukraine integrate its defense into NATO and EU defense and security standards.

The parties reaffirmed that Ukraine is part of the European and Euro-Atlantic family and that its future lies in the EU and NATO. And Luxembourg will support Ukraine in carrying out the necessary reforms.

The agreement also includes agreements to strengthen cooperation for secure, sustainable, and efficient energy supplies for Ukraine, work together to achieve a comprehensive, just, and lasting peace in Ukraine with broad international support, and remain firmly committed to ensuring full accountability for war crimes and other international crimes committed in connection with Russia's aggression against Ukraine.

The agreement also contains sections on Luxembourg's support for Ukraine's culture, art, and cultural heritage.

It also states that in the event of a future armed attack on Ukraine during the term of the agreement, the parties will hold bilateral consultations within 24 hours.

In total, our country has already concluded 22 bilateral security agreements according to the G7 Joint Declaration adopted in Vilnius on July 12, 2023: with the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Denmark, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Finland, Latvia, Spain, Belgium, Portugal, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Japan, the United States, the EU, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, and Luxembourg.

Ukraine signed a security agreement with Luxembourg: what does it provide for

Full text of the Agreement on Security Cooperation between Ukraine and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

I. Introduction

1. Ukraine and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg ("Luxembourg") (hereinafter collectively referred to as "the Parties") condemn in the strongest terms Russia's illegal, unjustified, and unprovoked aggressive war against Ukraine in violation of international law, including the Charter of the United Nations ("UN Charter").

2. The participants reaffirm the principles of the UN Charter, the Helsinki Final Act, and the Charter of Paris, including the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of states, as well as the inviolability of borders, which are essential for European and global security.

3. The participants reaffirm their commitment to common values, namely democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, as enshrined, inter alia, in the European Convention on Human Rights.

4. Luxembourg reiterates its unwavering support for the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized 1991 borders, including its territorial waters, as well as its inherent right to self-defense against Russian aggression in accordance with Article 51 of the UN Charter.

5. The participants recognize that Russia's aggressive war against Ukraine constitutes a threat to international peace and security and that Ukraine's security is integral to the security of the European and Euro-Atlantic area. Together they will continue to work for a comprehensive, just, and lasting peace in Ukraine, as well as for peace, security, and stability on the European continent.

6. The Participants take note that Luxembourg has provided military assistance to Ukraine for a total amount of EUR 74.4 million in 2022 and EUR 96 million in 2023. At the time of signing this Agreement, Luxembourg has allocated EUR 80 million for military support to Ukraine for 2024. Luxembourg will continue to provide military assistance and support to Ukraine with the same dynamics during the term of this Agreement, subject to parliamentary approval.

7. The Participants also recognize that since February 2022, Luxembourg has provided more than €29 million in humanitarian and recovery assistance, including through UN agencies, NGOs, and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, as well as in-kind support.

8. Participants reaffirm that Ukraine is part of the European and Euro-Atlantic family and that its future lies with the EU and NATO. They recall that Ukraine will continue to implement an ambitious reform program and that Luxembourg is committed to supporting Ukraine's reform efforts. They recognize that defense, recovery, reforms, and Ukraine's European and Euro-Atlantic ambitions are mutually reinforcing and must move forward in a coordinated manner.

II. Scope

9. This Agreement aims to further implement the Joint Declaration of Support for Ukraine (the "G7 Declaration") adopted by the G7 and the EU at the NATO Summit in Vilnius on 12 July 2023, and subsequently joined by other states, including Luxembourg.

10. By this Agreement, the Participants jointly decided to deepen and strengthen their cooperation and partnership through bilateral security commitments and support measures based on common interests in maintaining peace, a rules-based international order, multilateralism, and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

11. Luxembourg, in accordance with its constitutional and legal requirements and together with its partners, intends to provide long-term support for Ukraine's needs and to strengthen Ukraine's resilience to support its inherent right to self-defense against a full-scale aggressive war of Russia, to deter future aggression, as well as to prevent the escalation of the ongoing aggression against Ukraine and to support the functioning of the Ukrainian economy.

12. Luxembourg will continue to provide its support for the duration of this Agreement.

III. European and Euro-Atlantic integration

13. The participants reaffirm that Ukraine is part of the European family and that its future lies in the EU. Luxembourg recognizes Ukraine's efforts to implement the necessary reforms in extremely difficult circumstances. Participants recall the merit-based nature of the EU accession process. They reaffirm their commitment to work constructively for Ukraine's progressive European integration with a view to its future membership in the EU.

14. Participants reaffirm that Ukraine's security is an integral part of Euro-Atlantic and global security. Luxembourg is committed to supporting Ukraine's efforts to implement reforms on its path to future NATO membership through, but not limited to, promoting practical and political cooperation through the NATO Comprehensive Assistance Package, the adapted Annual National Program of Ukraine, and the newly established NATO-Ukraine Council. Luxembourg recalls that Ukraine belongs to the Euro-Atlantic family and will become a NATO member.

IV. Comprehensive security assistance and military assistance

15. Participants will work together to ensure that the Security and Defense Forces of Ukraine can defend Ukraine now and in the future. Luxembourg will continue to provide military support to Ukraine in all relevant fields, including land, air, and cyber-electromagnetic fields, in close coordination and cooperation with relevant international partners and institutions. Participants share the goal of contributing to the modernization of Ukraine's security and defense forces, in particular in line with the design of the future defense forces, as well as to a higher level of interoperability with NATO standards and other relevant international organizations.

16. The participants recognize that military support provided by Luxembourg will be used only following international law, including international humanitarian law. The participants agree that the misuse and illicit trafficking of military equipment provided to Ukraine must be avoided and recognize the efforts of the Ukrainian side and international partners to prevent this.

17. The participants recognize that Luxembourg has taken a leading role, together with Estonia and Ukraine, in the IT Capability Coalition and is contributing to the Air Force Capability Coalition and the Ground-to-Ground Artillery Coalition. Luxembourg may identify opportunities to expand its participation in other coalitions, taking into account its capabilities and Ukraine's military needs. All capability coalitions are designed to provide Ukraine with the means to deter Russian aggression and increase the interoperability of Ukrainian and NATO forces.

18. Luxembourg will support Ukraine by providing intelligence and surveillance (ISR) capabilities, in particular in the space domain, as well as cyber-electromagnetic capabilities in addition to other key capabilities, and by promoting interoperability with Euro-Atlantic partners. As co-chair of the IT Capabilities Coalition, Luxembourg will continue to support the strengthening of the information technology infrastructure and capabilities of the Ukrainian Security and Defense Forces.

19. Luxembourg will continue to provide long-term support in terms of equipment and training, including instructor training programs, to equip the Ukrainian Security and Defense Forces with the necessary capabilities, in particular through the EU Military Assistance Mission in support of Ukraine (EUMAM Ukraine).

20. Luxembourg will support Ukraine in enhancing its cyber training capabilities, in particular by making Luxembourg's training facilities, such as the Cyber Range, available to Ukraine.

21. Luxembourg will use, where appropriate, multilateral instruments, including NATO's Comprehensive Assistance Package for Ukraine (UCAP) and the European Peace Facility (EPF), to channel military support to Ukraine, as well as explore options to help build strategic stockpiles.

22. Participants will seek to ensure that in the event of external military aggression against Luxembourg, Ukraine's military capabilities are sufficient to provide effective military support to Luxembourg. The conditions, format, and scope of such support will be determined by the Participants.

23. To assess these objectives, Ukraine and Luxembourg will hold a regular high-level dialogue on strategic defense and security policy.

V. Cooperation in the field of defense industry

24. Ukraine and Luxembourg will work to transform Ukraine's defense industry into a strong capability that will enable Ukraine to restore its territorial integrity, serving as a major driver of economic recovery and an important part of an effective deterrent to future attempts at aggression to ensure peace and prosperity for both Ukraine and Luxembourg and for the whole of Europe.

25. Participants will work together to identify opportunities for closer and mutually beneficial partnerships and cooperation in the defense industry. Participants commit to involve, to the extent possible, Luxembourg and Ukrainian small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the production chains of newly acquired military equipment and defense industry capabilities.

26. Participants will assess the possibility of involving financial institutions located and managed in Luxembourg in the development of defense industrial capabilities.

27. Luxembourg will cooperate with Ukraine to strengthen the protection of transferred technologies and intellectual property rights.

28. Luxembourg will support Ukraine's efforts to integrate its defense industry into NATO and EU defense and security standards. In particular, Luxembourg will consider options to facilitate the integration of Ukraine's defense industry into the European defense technology and industrial base, where possible and in line with the opportunities provided by the European Defense Industrial Strategy and the European Defense Industry Program.

VI. Cooperation in the field of intelligence and security

29. Participants shall establish intelligence and security cooperation following the national legislation of each Participant and without prejudice to their national interests.

30. The Participants will study the possibility of concluding an Agreement on the Protection of Classified Information between their respective countries, which will facilitate the exchange of information between the competent state authorities of Ukraine and Luxembourg.

VII. Cybersecurity and hybrid activities

31. Participants will cooperate to enable Ukraine to prevent, detect, and counter Russian and any other cyber aggression, cyber espionage, and hybrid activities by providing technical assistance to Ukraine, as well as to increase its cyber resilience through the exchange of information and experience. Participants will cooperate to the best of their ability to deepen Ukraine's cooperation with NATO structures on cybersecurity within the legal framework and based on information and expertise.

32. Participants will explore cooperation in the area of countering disinformation and hostile information from Russia and any other party, to mutually support each other's efforts to counter foreign information manipulation and interference (FIMI). They will jointly contribute to the development of Ukraine's capacity to counter hybrid threats, Russian and any other malicious propaganda and disinformation campaigns affecting national security, and work to organize joint educational and training programs for experts within international institutions, in particular through regular exchange of best practices.

VIII. Protection of critical infrastructure

33. The participants will cooperate to jointly develop Ukraine's capabilities to detect, deter, and respond to cyber threats to critical infrastructure by promoting the availability of modern technologies for the protection of critical infrastructure, in particular through the provision of international technical assistance to Ukraine.

34. The participants will strengthen their cooperation in improving the resilience and preparedness of critical entities, in particular through the exchange of information, best practices, and experience.

35. Given the European perspective of Ukraine, Luxembourg will assist Ukraine in harmonizing its regulations with EU standards in the field of critical infrastructure protection. Participants will explore opportunities for joint educational and training programs for critical infrastructure protection specialists.

36. Participants reiterate their strong support for the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Director General following the illegal seizure and occupation of the Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) by Russia. Through its membership in the IAEA Board of Governors, Luxembourg will support the Agency's ongoing efforts to ensure nuclear safety and security in Ukraine, in particular, to prevent a nuclear accident at ZNPP or any other nuclear facility in Ukraine.

37. The participants will further strengthen their cooperation to ensure a safe, sustainable, and efficient energy supply for Ukraine. Building on existing structures, such as the Energy Community, the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity, the International Energy Advisory Board, and the Union Civil Protection Mechanism, this cooperation may include technical and financial support, as well as capacity building through investment, science, research, and innovation, in particular in the field of decentralized and sustainable renewable energy systems.

IX. Humanitarian assistance and resilience

38. Since the beginning of Russia's full-scale aggressive war, Luxembourg has been providing civilian support for Ukraine's resilience and assistance to the war-affected population.

39. Participants reaffirm that, as Ukraine embarks on early recovery and reconstruction, they will ensure the continuation of well-coordinated humanitarian assistance in life-saving forms and civil protection in kind where necessary. Participants will work together to ensure a better prioritized, targeted humanitarian response that reaches those most in need.

40. Luxembourg will continue to provide humanitarian financial and in-kind support to Ukraine, in particular in the areas of health, shelter, food security, energy, education, communication, protection, water, sanitation, and hygiene, as long as humanitarian needs remain.

41. The participants recognize the need to join efforts to protect the population and territories of Ukraine from the negative consequences caused by Russia's massive contamination of Ukrainian land with ammunition, mines and other remnants of war. Luxembourg has supported humanitarian demining in Ukraine and aims to strengthen its support for humanitarian demining efforts and develop institutional capacity in mine action together with partners, in particular through the NGO HALO Trust, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) support programs for Ukraine, as well as other multilateral and bilateral initiatives.

X. Long-term recovery support and economic cooperation

42. Luxembourg, in cooperation with its international and European partners, will continue to support the sustainable recovery and reconstruction of Ukraine, addressing immediate and long-term needs. Participants agree that these efforts should be transparent and in line with Ukraine's plans for a European future and its status as an EU candidate and member state of the Council of Europe.

43. Luxembourg will continue to work actively within the EU to ensure macro-financial support for Ukraine and further international coordination in all relevant forums. Luxembourg will continue to support the existing international and European structures and institutions in their efforts to provide regular and predictable financial support to Ukraine.

44. Luxembourg will actively engage through its bilateral development agency Lux-Development to support recovery, resilience, and economic development in Ukraine in priority sectors, including education, technical and vocational education and training, and local business development.

45. Luxembourg is committed to supporting capacity building in Ukraine, with a particular focus on financing micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), in particular through existing initiatives such as the Business Development Fund.

46. Participants emphasize the importance of engaging the private sector, civil society, and municipalities as drivers of an ambitious, inclusive, and decentralized recovery process. Participants aim to facilitate exchanges between business and civil society in both countries.

47. Luxembourg will promote the involvement of private companies in the recovery process. Luxembourg will strive to facilitate Ukraine's access to private financial companies and institutions in Luxembourg, the insurance industry, the technology sector, and other areas to strengthen bilateral trade and investment.

48. To this end, the Parties will strengthen cooperation in such areas as construction and metallurgy, cybersecurity, business and financial advisory services, and the space sector.

49. Luxembourg will continue to support Ukraine's innovation sector through exchanges between systems of interconnected projects and technologies for startups, including the Seeds of Bravery project, and bilateral cooperation between universities and research institutions.

50. Participants will strive to work with local businesses in the recovery and reconstruction of Ukraine, as their contribution plays a key role in supporting the local economy of Ukraine and strengthening the resilience of affected communities.

51. The Participants encourage cooperation at the local level, in particular through municipalities, to develop people-to-people contacts through collaboration and exchange of best practices in various fields, including recovery efforts, environmental transition, sustainability, good corporate governance, cultural and sporting exchanges, and commend existing cooperation and initiatives.

XI. Protection and support of Ukrainian internally displaced persons

52. Luxembourg will continue to accept displaced persons from Ukraine following the European Temporary Protection Directive as long as necessary. Luxembourg supports the extension of the European Temporary Protection Directive beyond March 2025 and advocates a unified and pan-European approach to the protection of Ukrainian citizens.

53. The participants recognize the support and solidarity of the municipalities of Luxembourg with Ukraine, which have played an important role in hosting Ukrainian displaced persons and providing assistance to meet their needs since the beginning of the Russian aggression against Ukraine.

54. Since February 2022, more than 1,250 Ukrainian students have been enrolled in public schools in Luxembourg. Luxembourg will continue to expand educational opportunities and facilitate the integration of Ukrainian students into the Luxembourg school system.

55. Luxembourg will support Ukraine within its means to facilitate the immediate release and return of all unlawfully detained, forcibly displaced, and illegally deported civilians, in particular Ukrainian children, in particular through the International Coalition for the Return of Ukrainian Children, and will contribute to international efforts to bring to justice those responsible for organizing the illegal deportation and displacement of Ukrainian children and civilians following international law and international human rights law.

XII. Support for a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in Ukraine

56. The participants recognize that Ukraine and the whole of Europe will not be secure until there is a comprehensive, just, and lasting peace in which Ukraine's rights under international law and, in particular, the UN Charter are respected.

57. Participants will work together to achieve a comprehensive, just, and lasting peace in Ukraine with broad international support, based on the principles of the Ukrainian peace formula and UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/ES-11/6. Luxembourg will continue its diplomatic efforts to promote the Ukrainian formula for peace, in particular point 7 on the restoration of justice.

XIII. Promoting accountability

58. The participants will remain firmly committed to ensuring full accountability for war crimes and other international crimes committed in connection with the Russian aggression against Ukraine.

59. Participants will continue to promote effective domestic and international investigation and prosecution of international crimes committed in or against Ukraine. Participants will continue to support the work of the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine and the International Criminal Court to ensure full and fair investigations into allegations of war crimes and other international crimes through independent, effective, and credible legal mechanisms.

60. The participants reaffirm their commitment to hold Russia accountable for its actions at the level of international institutions, including the International Court of Justice for violations of general international law and the European Court of Human Rights for violations falling under the European Convention on Human Rights.

61. Participants agree on the need to utilize and support all available international investigative mechanisms to document widespread violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Russian armed forces on the territory of Ukraine. These include the OSCE Moscow Mechanism and the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Violations in Ukraine established by the UN Human Rights Council.

62. Participants agree to ensure effective accountability for the crime of aggression against Ukraine, in particular when it comes to the Russian leadership. Participants will continue their work, in particular within the framework of the Coalition to explore options for the establishment of a tribunal for the crime of aggression against Ukraine, which Luxembourg hosted on January 19, 2024.

63. During its chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe from November 2024 to May 2025, Luxembourg will ensure that the issue of Russia's aggressive war against Ukraine remains on the agenda of the Council of Europe, in particular, to ensure full accountability for human rights violations, international crimes and other serious violations of international law, as well as to provide compensation to the victims of Russian aggression.

XIV. Compensation for losses, damages, and harm caused by the Russian aggression

64. The Participants reaffirm that the Russian Federation must be held accountable for the loss or damage caused to natural and legal persons, as well as to the State of Ukraine, as a result of its internationally wrongful acts committed in connection with Russia's aggressive war against Ukraine. Luxembourg, working with its partners, will continue to explore all legal avenues through which Russian assets can be used to support Ukraine following existing treaty obligations and in line with EU and international law.

65. As a matter of priority, the Participants will continue to work together with international partners to establish a compensation mechanism to ensure compensation for damage, loss, or injury caused by the Russian aggression, as provided for in the Statute of the Register of Damage caused by the aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, adopted by Resolution CM/Res(2023)3 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. In this regard, the Participants will explore appropriate options for financing a compensation mechanism that is in line with international law to ensure prompt and adequate compensation to victims of Russian aggression.

XV. Restrictive measures (sanctions)

66. Participants will continue to work together to ensure that the cost of Russia's aggression continues to rise, in particular through restrictive measures (sanctions) and robust export controls. Participants recognize the importance of restrictive measures (sanctions) to limit the Russian Federation's access to finance, goods, technology, and services in its war of aggression, to reduce Russia's sources of revenue, and to deter future attacks.

67. As long as the Russian Federation's aggression against Ukraine continues, Luxembourg will remain committed, within the European Union, to tough restrictive measures (sanctions) against sectors of the Russian economy and those who, inside and outside the Russian Federation, support the war, or profit from it, or help to circumvent sanctions in third countries. Luxembourg will take decisive action to combat all forms of sanctions circumvention, together with other EU partners and the European Commission.

68. Participants will provide each other with up-to-date, appropriate information on the grounds for restrictive measures (sanctions) and other necessary information in accordance with their respective obligations and national legislation.

XVI. Support for culture, art, and cultural heritage in Ukraine

69. based on the bilateral agreement on cultural cooperation signed in 1994, and because of the importance of culture and the arts for democratic societies, the preservation of freedom of expression as a fundamental European value, and the maintenance of Ukrainian identity and traditions, Luxembourg supports artists and cultural workers in Ukraine intending to restore and strengthen the sustainability of cultural and artistic activities in the country.

70. Luxembourg will do its utmost to support the actions and initiatives launched within UNESCO, the European Union, and the Council of Europe to address the consequences of Russia's war against Ukraine on its cultural and creative sectors and to contribute to their future recovery.

XVII. Reform process in Ukraine

71. Participants reaffirm that reforms are essential to maintain and strengthen Ukraine's democracy, rule of law, and stability, as well as to Ukraine's European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations. Luxembourg recognizes the significant progress made by Ukraine in implementing reforms and encourages Ukraine to continue its ambitious reform process.

72. Ukraine reaffirms its continued commitment to implementing the reforms identified by the EU, the Council of Europe, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and NATO, covering in particular governance, the rule of law and fundamental rights, justice, law enforcement, transparency, the fight against corruption, public administration, the business environment and the democratic control of the Security and Defence Forces.

73. Ukraine commits to promoting anti-corruption efforts at all levels of society in the public, private, and civil society sectors. This includes providing sufficient resources for independent anti-corruption institutions, which will benefit society as a whole.

74. Luxembourg, in cooperation with the EU and its member states, will continue to fully support Ukraine's accession to the EU once the relevant conditions are met, in particular by providing technical assistance and training to implement the necessary reforms.

75. Ukraine commits to promoting and developing comprehensive democratic control and oversight of its security and defense forces, as well as the broader security and defense sector, focusing on further enhancing accountability and transparency in security institutions and advancing defense reforms and modernization.

76. Luxembourg will continue to provide assistance and advice at the bilateral and multilateral levels on the reform and further development of the Ukrainian Security and Defence Forces, in particular through the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions and other international activities in support of Ukraine.

XVIII. Cooperation in the event of a future armed attack

77. In the event of a future armed attack on Ukraine, the Participants will, at the request of any of the Participants, consult within 24 hours bilaterally or through other channels as they deem appropriate on the needs of Ukraine in connection with the exercise of its right to self-defense as enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter, to determine appropriate further steps.

78. Luxembourg reaffirms that, under these circumstances and following its constitutional and legal requirements, in particular European and international law, it will provide Ukraine with security and defense support, appropriate military equipment in the relevant fields within its means and capabilities, economic assistance, and will seek agreement in the EU on imposing economic and other costs on the aggressor.

79. In order to ensure the broadest and most effective collective response to any future armed attack, the Participants may amend these provisions to align with any mechanism that Ukraine may later agree with other international partners.

XIX. Consultation and cooperation

80. Appropriate consultation structures will be established to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement and to ensure ongoing strategic dialogue between the Participants.

81. The Parties will, if necessary, appoint authorized bodies to develop and implement bilateral arrangements in accordance with the areas of cooperation defined in this Agreement.

XX. Final provisions

82. This Agreement shall enter into force upon its signature and shall remain in force for ten years from the date of its signature.

83. This Agreement may be amended and supplemented, in particular by adding annexes, at any time by written consent of the Parties.

84. Any disputes between the Parties arising out of the interpretation and/or implementation of this Agreement shall be settled by peaceful means, through negotiations or consultations between the Parties.

85. The Parties may jointly decide to extend this Agreement by giving not less than six (6) months' notice before the expiration of the ten-year period.

86. At the same time, following the G7 Declaration, the Participants share the view that this Agreement does not prevent Ukraine from pursuing its future membership in the Euro-Atlantic community. If Ukraine becomes a member of NATO before the expiration of this Agreement, the Participants will decide on its future status.

87. This Agreement may be terminated by either Participant at any time by giving written notice of its intention to the other Participant. The Agreement shall be terminated six (6) months from the date of receipt of such notice. The termination of the Agreement shall not affect the implementation of ongoing activities or projects that have been decided upon before the date of termination unless Luxembourg or Ukraine decide otherwise.

Signed in Washington, D.C., on July 10, 2024, in duplicate in the English and Ukrainian languages, both texts being equally authentic. In the event of any discrepancy, the English text shall prevail.

To Ukraine: Volodymyr Zelenskyy, President

For Luxembourg: Luc Frieden, Prime Minister

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